Головна Головна -> Реферати українською -> Іноземні мови -> Marketing


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Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.
The ability to recognize early trends is very important. Producers must know why, where, for what purpose the consumers buy. Market research helps the producer to predict what the people will want. And through advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy. Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of the consumer's dollar. The trend in the USA has been to high mass consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods available to consumers. It provided a wide range of merchandise and plenty of parking facilities.
Active Vocabulary
producer - виробник
consumer - споживач
user - споживач
distribution - збут, розповсюдження
marketing - продаж, збут, маркетинг
transporting - транспортування
storing - зберігання
storage - зберігання
product planning - розробка нових продуктів
pricing - калькуляція цін
promotion - сприяння продажу товару, наприклад, за
допомогою реклами
traffic - торгівля
marketing research - вивчення ринку збуту
trend - тенденція, загальний напрямок
to predict - передбачати
to influence - впливати
Comprehension Questions
1. What does marketing mean?
2. What activities does marketing consist of?
3. What do marketing operations include?
4. Why is it so important for the producer to predict the trends?
5. How was mass consumption possible in USA?
Vocabulary Practice
Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.
One of the aims of market research is to indicate
new... among people. 1 predict
Advertising must... the consumer and make him buy the goods produced. 2 influence
3. Often marketing is called.... 3 promote
In order to sell a new product, a producer has to consider how to... it. 4 marketing
The goods of this company are not sold very well, they must think about.... 5 trends
6. Sometimes it is difficult to influence ... through advertising. 6 distribution
7. If you what to produce something new, you should start with.... 7 market research
8. A producer wants to... the new trends and then tries to influence them. 8 consumer
9.... includes product development and pricing among other things. 9 product planning
(Sally and Don work in the Marketing Department of a company, that makes different meal products.)
Don Hey, Sally, look at these figures. The price of sugar is going up 10% during the
next year.
Sally Oh, that's bad. That means trouble for our jam line.
Don I think so too. Sugar is the main ingredient, you know. What's your opinion?
Sally Well, we are not the price leaders in the field and jam is a very price sensitive item. According to our marketing research information consumers aren't particularly brand loyal about jam.
Don I have a brilliant idea. You know, this could be a great marketing opportunity for us.
Sally What do you mean?
Don Well, because of the price rise in sugar we know that the price of jam will go up too. The increase will pass on the consumer, won't it?
Sally Right.
Don Imagine, we find the possibility of changing the ingredients in the jam so that we wouldn't have to raise the price.
Sally Then we wouldn't trouble about the price rise on sugar because we'll be able to sell the jam at the same price. The idea is that we could market less expensive jam. What a promotional campaign we could have!
Don Sure. If we do it right we'll sell more and become the leader in the market.
Sally Now the first thing is to talk to Research and Development.

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