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Реферати українською Іноземні мови Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk INTRODUCTION

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Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy Dr. N.V. Kosinov, V. I. Garbaruk INTRODUCTION

The proton was discovered in the early 20-th. in experiments with alpha-particles. In experiments on dispersion on protons of electrons and gamma - radiation the authentic proofs of existence of a certain internal structure from this particle were received. In 1970, it became possible to receive the direct proof in experiment in the Stanford centre of the linear accelerator (SLAC), that the proton really has internal structure [1]. However, the concrete internal structure of a proton remains unopeneded up. The hypothesis of quark as fundamental basis of elementary particles, has not resulted in an establishment of concrete internal structure of a proton. As it is marked in [1]: "Quark model was offered for an explanation of variety of adrons. It is nothing telling about an internal structure any of these particles by an obvious image " Till Now there is no understanding, on what principles the mechanism of formation of structure of a proton is constructed. On this reason there is no explanation of its mass, which is equal to 1836,1526675 (39) masses of electrons. Mass of a proton is determined experimentally. There are no the theory of mass of a proton and analytical relation for Яalculation of its mass. >From all heavy particles the proton is a single steady particle. The proton is a basis of all complex material formations of the Universe. The world is obliged by existence to a proton, however level of knowledge about it does not correspond to its role in universe. To puzzle out such Яonundrum of problems, it is necessary to open concrete internal structure and to create the theory of its internal structure. The physicists have already come closely to such problem, when it is necessary to give the answer to a question: ? what concrete internal structure of particles is, as also what the Nature for them used as a building material? ¦ There are all reasons to believe, that the theory of internal structure of a proton will open access to new methods of receiving of energy. The development of energy of a proton can become the major factor in the decision of a power problem. This article is devoted to the decision of this task.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE of a PROTON

In articles [2 -5] the steps in a direction of creation of the theory of internal structure of elementary particles are undertaken. The relation reflecting the law of formation of structure of an elementary particle is received:

(1)

Where: n = 2,3...; me - mass of a electron ; j = 1 for neutral particles; j = 0 for particles having a charge.

From the formula it is visible, that the law of genesis of structure of substance has binary character. Binarity is being kept on each step of structurization of material. Binarity in the laws of genesis of structure reflects, that the charging conjugate particles participate in formation of other particles. The formula reflects dynamics of genesis of structure, according to which a formation of structure of material particles is taking place.

The relations for energies are described by the following mathematical formulas [2 - 5]:

(2)

(3)

The formula (2) is applicable for definition of energy of neutral particles, the formula (3) is applicable for definition of energy of charged particles. Each of formulas (2) and (3) reflects the certain discrete series of power levels, at their correspondence to sequence of material formations in dynamics of genesis of structure. Formulas (2) and (3) show that the energy participating in formation of particles is divided into two components. The first component represents total rest energy of material formations participating in formation of a new particle. So, for neutral material formations, it is presented as:

(4)

The second component is presented by summands, which determine size of binding energy:

(5)

The relations (2) and (3) reflect discrete character of internal energy of elementary particles.

In [5] it is shown, that the internal structure of a proton represents fractal construction.

Fractal, revealed in structure of elementary particles, reflects the determinate process of genesis of structure. For fractal of a proton the alternation of symmetric and asymmetric branches of treelike structure is characteristic. The discovering of a concrete kind of fractal, reflecting law of genesis of structure of a proton, allows to receive the quantitative characteristics of elementary particles by a Яalculated way. In [5] the quantitative characteristics of fractal structures of elementary particles are received and the mathematical description of fractal of a proton is found. The mathematical relation for an elementary cell of fractal of a proton is presented as:

The proton was discovered in the early 20-th. in experiments with alpha-particles. In experiments on dispersion on protons of electrons and gamma - radiation the authentic proofs of existence of a certain internal structure from this particle were received. In 1970, it became possible to receive the direct proof in experiment in the Stanford centre of the linear accelerator (SLAC), that the proton really has internal structure [1]. However, the concrete internal structure of a proton remains unopeneded up. The hypothesis of quark as fundamental basis of elementary particles, has not resulted in an establishment of concrete internal structure of a proton. As it is marked in [1]: "Quark model was offered for an explanation of variety of adrons. It is nothing telling about an internal structure any of these particles by an obvious image " Till Now there is no understanding, on what principles the mechanism of formation of structure of a proton is constructed. On this reason there is no explanation of its mass, which is equal to 1836,1526675 (39) masses of electrons. Mass of a proton is determined experimentally. There are no the theory of mass of a proton and analytical relation for Яalculation of its mass. >From all heavy particles the proton is a single steady particle. The proton is a basis of all complex material formations of the Universe. The world is obliged by existence to a proton, however level of knowledge about it does not correspond to its role in universe. To puzzle out such Яonundrum of problems, it is necessary to open concrete internal structure and to create the theory of its internal structure. The physicists have already come closely to such problem, when it is necessary to give the answer to a question: ? what concrete internal structure of particles is, as also what the Nature for them used as a building material? ¦ There are all reasons to believe, that the theory of internal structure of a proton will open access to new methods of receiving of energy. The development of energy of a proton can become the major factor in the decision of a power problem. This article is devoted to the decision of this task.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE of a PROTON

In articles [2 -5] the steps in a direction of creation of the theory of internal structure of elementary particles are undertaken. The relation reflecting the law of formation of structure of an elementary particle is received:

(1)

Where: n = 2,3...; me - mass of a electron ; j = 1 for neutral particles; j = 0 for particles having a charge.

From the formula it is visible, that the law of genesis of structure of substance has binary character. Binarity is being kept on each step of structurization of material. Binarity in the laws of genesis of structure reflects, that the charging conjugate particles participate in formation of other particles. The formula reflects dynamics of genesis of structure, according to which a formation of structure of material particles is taking place.

The relations for energies are described by the following mathematical formulas [2 - 5]:

(2)

(3)

The formula (2) is applicable for definition of energy of neutral particles, the formula (3) is applicable for definition of energy of charged particles. Each of formulas (2) and (3) reflects the certain discrete series of power levels, at their correspondence to sequence of material formations in dynamics of genesis of structure. Formulas (2) and (3) show that the energy participating in formation of particles is divided into two components. The first component represents total rest energy of material formations participating in formation of a new particle. So, for neutral material formations, it is presented as:

(4)

The second component is presented by summands, which determine size of binding energy:

(5)

The relations (2) and (3) reflect discrete character of internal energy of elementary particles.

In [5] it is shown, that the internal structure of a proton represents fractal construction.

Fractal, revealed in structure of elementary particles, reflects the determinate process of genesis of structure. For fractal of a proton the alternation of symmetric and asymmetric branches of treelike structure is characteristic. The discovering of a concrete kind of fractal, reflecting law of genesis of structure of a proton, allows to receive the quantitative characteristics of elementary particles by a Яalculated way. In [5] the quantitative characteristics of fractal structures of elementary particles are received and the mathematical description of fractal of a proton is found. The mathematical relation for an elementary cell of fractal of a proton is presented as: