The year of 1986 is the Halley comet year. The history of cometology retained the following curious case. In 1910, when its (i.e. the Halley comet’s) previous visit to the Sun took place, one of the March numbers of a newspaper “Golos Samary” (“The Voice of Samara”) reported, that a certain monk sold shrewdly at the central city square the leaves of “Charm against meeting with Halley comet” of the following content: “You are devil! Satan! Never world Velzewool! Don’t feign you are a celestial star! Don’t deceive the Orthodoxes, hide your godless tail, because the God’s stars have no tails…Dip your tail into fiery river, let it reduce to ashes, let it char, let it fry! Etc…” This curiosity was reprinted by “Russkiye Vedomosti” (“Russian Registers”) on the 3-rd of April, 1910 and went down in the history of the Russian science.
It is interesting to note, that the next visit of the Halley comet was in 1986 and coincided with the 400th anniversary of the city of Kuibyshev (formerly and now afresh - SAMARA! – rem. A.G.).
The author of this article, living in Kuibyshev, dedicated to this significant date the application for the discovery “Comets formation phenomenon” [1,2], which, as the author considers, convincingly confirms and at last resolves a so-called comet problem.
2. EXISTING VIEWS (HYPOTHESES) ON THE COMETS FORMATION MECHANISM
In accordance with the views, which were shared by the most part of the astronomers before the experiment “Vega” (“Venus-Halley”), the comets originate from the so-called comet cloud of Oort and consist basically of dirty ice .
This hypothesis cannot convincingly explain the fact why the comets are grouped around the major planets of the Solar system (in families of planet-giants). Besides, the mechanism of comets breaking-away from the Oort cloud is actually very unconvincing.
The Nemesida hypothesis (the dwarfish star – the satellite of the Sun) did not save the situation.
The second basic hypothesis (S.K.Vsehswiatsky) states, that the comets are the result of volcanism on the major planets or their satellites. Yet it’s obvious, that this mechanism demandes too high initial speed.
The basic hypothesis now, after the experiment “Vega”, is the idea that the asteroids are dead comets. The author considers this point of view as an intermediate stage on the way to the truth.
3. A CONCRETE COMETS FORMATION MECHANISM
The basic author’s idea is the following: “The comets are formed from asteroids as the result of asteroids piercing through the rings of the major planets of the Solar system”.
Indeed, it is known that the planets of the Solar system can be collided with small space bodies including asteroids. The major planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, probably, Neptune) are surrounded by rings consisting of separate particles. The rings can also be subjected to collisions with asteroids because they are not the exception in this sense. During these collisions the rings may be pierced through because they are not very dense.
For instance, the thickness of the Saturn ring is about 2-5 km, moreover the stars can be viewed through them. A typical size of the particles is about 1 cm (in accordance with the data of “Pioneer-11”).
It is interesting to note, that the space apparatus “Voyager” discovered the two Saturn satellites in the ring system, moreover, one of them is moving in the ring, but the other has a slightly slanting orbit and therefore it finds itself either at one or the other side periodically. This circumstance confirms the possibility of piercing of the ring. The destruction of both the ring particles and asteroid and the distribution spectrum of the particles by speed will take place as a result of the piercing of the ring by asteroid as strong as the concrete circumstances allow. Besides the asteroid flown through the ring takes off some quantity of its substance. The small fragments of this collision can generate the meteor flows afterwards.
A basic part of the asteroid (a big “piece”) will be soiled by the ring substance and, actually, this very part forms the comet. Indeed, the chemical composition of comet tails and major planets rings are remarkably similar: H2O (ice, snow, steam), different frozen gases and other volatile components (to the point, the Saturn rings are localized inside the Roche’s sphere for a liquid body).
The above-mentioned mechanism makes clear and obvious the fact, that the periodical comets (i.e. by the type of orbits – orbit classification in families) are conventionally grouped around the major planets having the rings.
The Jupiter ring is less dense than Saturn rings and it probably consists of snow and gas. This partially explains the fact, that the most of short-period comets (Jupiterian family) have a faint tail or only have a coma (here it is necessary to take into consideration the rapid evolution, as far as the period is short enough).