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Replacement Housing

Replacement Housing
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Replacement Housing

Кубанский государственный аграрный университет

Кафедра иностранных языков

Реферат на тему:

«Replacement Housing.»

(«Помещения для ремонтного молодняка»)

Подготовил: студент группы СТ-21

Деревенец Ф. Н.

Краснодар, 1998


Management factors. Affecting design 4

Facility management 5

Herd size and makeup 5

Management groups 6

Resting space 7

Feeding and watering space 7

Handling and treatment facilities 8

Prep room 8

Feed and bedding storage 8

Cold housing 11

Warm housing 11

Calf housing (up to weaning) 11

Hutches in Cold Housing 12

Hutch management 13

Individual Pen in Cold Housing 13

Individual Stall in Warm Housing 13

Transition housing (3-5 months) 15

Calf Shelter or Super Hutch 17

Transition Barn 17

Calf Barn 18

Heifer housing (6-24 months) 19

Freestall Housing 20

Two-row freestall barn 20

Two-row graduated freestall barn 21

Two-row gated freestall 22

Drive-through gated freestall 24

Bedded Pack 24

Counter-sloped barn 24

Optional outside lots 25

Факторы управления. Воздействие на проект. 27

Средства управления 28

Размеры и структура стада. 28

Управление группами 30

Помещения для отдыха 31

Пространство для кормления 31

Обработка и средства обработки 32

Подготовительное помещение 32

Хранение корма и подстилок 32

Холодное помещение 34

Теплое помещение 35

Помещения для телят (вплоть до отлучения) 36

Клетки в холодном помещении 36

Управление клетками 36

Индивидуальные загоны в холодном помещении 37

Индивидуальное стойло в теплом помещении 37

Переходное помещение (3-5 месяцев) 39

Укрытие для теленка или первоклассная клетка 41

Переходный сарай 42

Сарай для телят 44

Помещение для нетелей (6-24 месяцев) 44

Боксовые помещения 45

Двухрядный боксовый сарай 45

Двухрядный дифференцированный боксовый сарай 46

Двухрядный закрываемый бокс 47

Сквозной закрываемый бокс 48

Подстилочный узел 48

Встречно-наклонный сарай 49

Дополнительный внешний участок 51

As replacement heifers grow, their needs change. This includes a change in needed physical environment. When a heifer is young, it is physically separated from other animals to minimize the risk of disease. As it grows, it is grouped with other animals to increase resistance to disease and prepare the animal for the breeding herd. Eventually the animal enters the breeding herd and finally the milking herd.

Each stage of production requires housing to meet the physical needs of the animal.

Management factors. Affecting design

House replacement animals in separate facilities away from the milking herd to foster a healthy environment for each group. Well-designed and properly-managed replacement animal housing allows the ability to adopt the best management practices currently recommended. Plan space, equipment, environment, rations and care to meet the needs of each group. Manage replacements in groups according to their specific requirements. Facility design should allow for easy implementation of the management plan for each group. When planning replacement animal housing, provide:

> Adequate resting and exercise space.

> Covered, dry and draft-free resting area.

> Good quality fresh air.

> Adequate space for feed and water.

> Space to group animals by size or age.

> Clean lots to maintain sanitary conditions.

> Isolation area for sick animals.

> Observation area for animals.

> Treatment facilities.

> Space for handling and restraint of animals.

Poorly planned or improperly managed animal housing increases the risk of disease or injury. High humidities are especially detrimental to animal health. Pneumonia, scours and other diseases can permanently damage vital body organs and reduce milk producing potential of an animal. Calves and heifers raised in a poor environment may never reach their full genetic potential for milk production.

Facility management

For healthy, high producing replacement animals, provide high quality housing and a management plan that addresses animals' needs. Good management, understanding what to do and then doing it on schedule, is important to the success of any housing system. Sanitation, stall maintenance, bedding, ventilation control, feeding, herd health, treatment and close observation are all important management practices. Young animals may need training and/or time to get accustomed to using freestalls. Daily or routine chores such as feeding, stall maintenance or manure removal should be made as convenient as possible to make sure they are accomplished in a timely manner.

Herd size and makeup

Herd size can mean either the number of cows actually milking or mature cows both dry and milking. In this handbook, the herd size is the number of mature cows.

Typical herd makeup, assuming uniform calving year-round, is given in

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Реферат на тему: Replacement Housing

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