Головна Головна -> Реферати українською -> Іноземні мови -> PERIOD OF STATEHOOD (879-1360)


28,22 KB
поточна оцінка 5.0

Скачати цю роботу безкоштовно
Пролистати роботу: 1  2 

Silver coins of Volodymyr the Great with his coat of arms on the reverse side.

The Kyivan State proper was established by prince Olekh in 879. He

conducted military expeditions to the shores of Caspian Sea and raided

Byzantine cities.

He was followed, in 912, by prince Ehor, who not only continued

external raids but also had to fight insubordinate tribes of Ulitchs and

Derevlans. He died during a battle with Derevlans in 945.

His wife Olha revenged his death by brutal suppression of

Derevlans. In 964 she became a Christian and established her son

Svyatoslav on throne.

Svyatoslav was able and courageous prince; he fought Asian hordes

in the East and conducted raids on Bulgaria. He divided his state

between his sons, then continued with his expeditions and battles. When

he died in 972 during battle with Pechenegs, his sons started to fight

between themselves, often with help from their enemies.

In 980, prince Volodymyr defeated all his brothers and unified the

country into one powerful state with Kyiv as capital. He adopted

Christianity in 988 and started to convert population, who then

worshiped Pagan gods, to Christian Religion. Force was often used

against those who resisted. He produced silver and gold coins with his

portrait on one side and trident on the reverse side ( such special form

of trident is Coat of Arms of present day Ukraine). In History he is

known as Volodymyr the Great or Saint Volodymyr. During his reign,

pillaging Pecheneg hordes defeated Khazars, pushed out Hungarian hordes

from southern steppes and became a menace to the state; Volodymyr

started to fortify Kyiv against them. After his death in 1015 fighting

and assassinations between his sons ensued, resulting in victory for

prince Yaroslav in 1019.

Yaroslav the Great consolidated nearly whole of his father's

territory, defeated Pechenegs and became one of the most powerful rulers

in Europe. A church hierarchy was established, headed (at least since

1037) by the metropolitan of Kyiv, who was usually appointed by the

patriarch of Constantinople. Yaroslav promoted family ties with other

kingdoms, built many churches, improved Kyiv's fortifications,

introduced laws and established courts.

However, same as his forefathers, he divided the country between

his sons, who after his death in 1054 started to fight among themselves

and divide their land between their sons. This resulted in small

principalities who not only fought each other, but also had to defend

themselves from marauding Turkish and Polovetsian hordes, who plundered

the countryside.

In 1097 all princes agreed to stop fighting between themselves. In

1103 they united their forces under leadership of prince Monomakh (one

of the grandsons of Yaroslav the Great) and defeated Polovetsian hordes.

However constant warfare weakened country's economic strength and caused

near collapse of cultural and political system of Ukraine.

After death of Monomakh in 1125 Ukraine remained fragmented into

numerous principalities, having their own customs and rules, with only

nominal allegiance to the Prince of Kyiv ( this position was occupied by

sons of Monomakh on rotational basis). Gradually Kyiv lost it's power

and influence; many principalities separated.

An outstanding chronicle of events was compiled in Old Church

Slavonic language by Venerable Nestor in 1136.

In 1169 prince Andrey Bogolyubski conquered and destroyed Kyiv and

established his capital in Vladimir near present site of Moscow, thus

originating present Russian state.

The Ukrainian princes continued to struggle on against Polovtsi.

One particular battle led by Prince Ehor in 1185 was enshrined in a poem

"Slovo o Polku Ehorevim" (The Tale of Ehor's Regiment).

Western parts of Ukraine - Halych (Galicia) and Volynj (Volhynia) -

free from Polovetsian raids, gradually emerged as leading

principalities. Prince Roman ruled there in 1199. His sons succeeded

in uniting both principalities into one rich and powerful state.

About year 1220, when a new horde of Mongols and Tatars invaded

Ukraine, the princes have reached some sort of accommodation with

Polovtsi and fought together to expel this new horde. They succeeded at

first but, toward the end of year 1240, Tatars returned and besieged

Kyiv. On 16th December 1240 they conquered, plundered and ruined the

city. Afterward they moved westward, plundered Halych, Poland and

Hungary then in 1245 they returned and occupied eastern Ukraine.

Meanwhile, Prince Danylo (son of Prince Roman) established himself

in Halych and his brother Vasylko in Volynj. Together they managed to

keep Tatars away from their principalities. Danylo founded city Lviv in

1250 as a defense site against Tatars. In 1253 he accepted the royal

Завантажити цю роботу безкоштовно
Пролистати роботу: 1  2 

Реферат на тему: PERIOD OF STATEHOOD (879-1360)

BR.com.ua © 1999-2016 | Реклама на сайті | Умови використання | Зворотній зв'язок