Tourism is the world's largest and fastest growing industry. In recent years there have been increases in international tourism for the purpose of experiencing another culture. There is a wide-spread opinion that the economic impact of tourism is always positive while the social and environmental impact is always negative. Indeed, increasing incomes to regions due to tourists are easy to see as well as numerous host-tourist conflicts and destruction of the environment and local cultures. However, tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for residents in communities when sharing and preserving their culture and nature could be seen as conflicting goals. (Besculides, Lee, McCormick, 2002:303) In this paper I will consider impacts of tourism with reference to the Australia. The area is unique because of its nature and variety of sea activities, e.g. fishing, boat trips, sailing etc.Today those resources which used to be source of living for the local community have become very attractive for tourists. It is a challenge to get most profits of the situation and avoid possible conflicts.
II. Sports and Recreation
Often referred to as the national identity, Australians take sport very seriously. You can't walk into a bar without a sports event from somewhere in Oz on TV. In winter, Western Australia, South Australia, and Victoria catch footy fever for Australian Rules Football, while New South Wales and Queensland traditionally follow rugby. In summer, cricket is the spectator sport of choice across the nation. Star Aussie Rules football players and top cricketers enjoy hero status. Tune in to H. G. Nelson and Roy Slaven's Sunday afternoon Triple-J radio show This Sporting Life for a taste of Aussie sport culture, or check out the ridiculously popular Footy Show, on television's Channel 9.
The uninitiated may have trouble making sense of a sport where people can "bowl a maiden over of five flippers and a googly," but visitors won't be able to avoid the enthusiasm. Two teams of 11 players face off in a contest that can last anywhere from an afternoon to five days. Each summer, international cricket overshadows the national competition. Not just a scrimmage, a "test match" is the most lengthy and serious form of international cricket. In 1877, Australia's cricket team headed to England for its first international test against the mother country, emerging victorious. The Australians, as a shocked English reporter wrote, had "taken off with the ashes" of English cricket. Ever since then, British and Australian Test teams have been in noble contest for "the Ashes" (the trophy is a small, symbolic urn) with other former British colonial countries such as India, Pakistan, and South Africa joining in the competition. In December and January, international teams arrive for a full tour, consisting of five test matches, one each in Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane. The five-day tests, accompanied by smaller one-day matches, are over by February, just in time for the country to turn its attention to national cricket and the Sheffield Shield finals in March.
Australian Rules Football
In Victoria, South Australia, and Western Australia, the Australian Football League (AFL) teams fill the winter void that the end of the cricket season leaves. Played on cricket ovals, the game was originally designed to keep cricket players in shape in the off-season. The AFL grand final, in early September, is a marvelous spectacle at the home of Australian sport, the MCG. For more information on footy, see Footy 101, p. 22.
According to legend, rugby was born one glorious day in 1823 when one inspired (or perhaps frustrated) student in Rugby, England, picked up a soccer ball and ran it into the goal. Since then, rugby has evolved (or devolved) into an intricately punishing game with two variants: rugby union involving 15-man teams, and rugby league with 13-man teams. Despite the international reputation of the national union team, the Wallabies, rugby union sometimes carries a muted following. Since they defeated France to win the World Cup in 1999, though, rugby union has grown in popularity. Matches such as the Super 12 tournament and Tri-nation series (Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand) often pack stadiums and pubs. Part of the Tri-nation series, the Bledisloe Cup (first played in 1931) perpetuates a healthy animosity with Australia's down-under cousin, New Zealand.