England, Canada, Americа (еnglish speaking countries)
History of England.
The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and Dark Ages.
The Norman Invasion.
Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.
The British Empire.
World War I and the “inter-war” years.
World War II and the ‘post-war’ years.
The Klondike Gold Rush.
Immigration and the creation of the USA.
America and WW2.
The making of the USA.
4.Ukraine and English speaking countries.
1. History of England.
The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, landed, in 55 and 54 BC, in the part of the island of Great Britain which was later to become South East England. Nevertheless, they did not come as conquerors at that time. It was only a century later, in 43 AD, under the emperor Claudius, that the Romans occupied England. In order to protect themselves from the Picts, the inhabitants of Scotland at that time, the Romans under the emperor Hadrian had a wall built from east to west, Hadrian’s Wall, to defend their southern British provinces and marc the boundary between England and Scotland, as they were to become later.
The Romans constructed a highly effective internal infrastructure to underpin their military occupation, building long, straight roads the length and breadth of the country, most of which centered on Londium (the Roman name for London). Many viaducts and aqueducts still remain across England, along with the Roman city walls of Chester York and others.
The indigenous, mostly Celtic population was suppressed with efficiency, although numerous, and often extremely bloody, uprisings occurred all through their occupation. The most notable uprisings were that of the Iceni (and other tribes) led by Boudicca or “Boadicea” in 61-62 AD.
The Romans held England for almost four centuries, never venturing much into Wales and kept out of Scotland by the Picts, before their presence weakened and by the 5th century they had left.
1.2.The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and the Dark Ages.
The dark Ages were times when history was oral, and the local Celts and the Anglo-Saxons and Viking invaders all used songs, sagas and oral poetry to record and retell events. Much became lost; of what remains, there is a complex mix of history, legend and myth, King Arthur and knights being just one example of inadequate historical source evidence.
What is now England was progressively settled by successive and often complementary waves of Germanic tribesmen. Among them the Angles, Saxons and Jutes together with many other tribes who had been partly displaced on mainland Europe. Increasingly the Celtics population was pushed westwards and northwards. The settlement of England is known as the Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon settlement.
In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the Celtic people of Southern Britain were separated into the South-West nation of Cornwall and Devon and the Welsh by the advancing Saxons.
Beginning with the raid in 793 on the monastery at Lindisfarne, Vikings made many raids on England.
The Saxons founded a settlement beside the River Sheaf, (later to become Sheffield in South Yorkshire) and it was near there that Egbert of Wessex received the submission of Eanred of Northumbria in 829 and so became the first Saxon overlord of all England.
Having started with plundering raids, the Vikings later began to settle in England and trade, eventually ruling the Danelaw from the late 9th century.
There are many traces of Vikings in England today, for instance many words in the English language; the similarity of Old English and Old Norse led to much borrowing. The major Viking settlement was in York, capital of the kingdom of York.
There were four major areas: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex and East Anglia. The kingdoms were powerful institutions and were characterised by many personalities recorded by history, but usually only after the record-keeping Normans took over, so much of their history is debatable.