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The human body

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The human body
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Реферат
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Українська
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поточна оцінка 5.0


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The human body consists of three parts. They are the head, the trunk and the limbs. There are many bones of different sizes and shapes in the skeleton. The bones are connected together by the cartilages, the ligaments and joints. The joints allow the bones to move.

The main part of tin; head is called the skull. The bones of the skull are composed of cranial and facial parts. The skull encloses the brain. The forehead, the temples, the cheeks, the cheekbones, the two jaws and the mouth compose the face. The teeth and the tongue are lodged in the mouth. One chews food with the teeth and tastes food with the tongue. The lips are the two margins of the mouth. We see with the eyes, breathe and smell with the nose and hear with ears.

The trunk consists of the spine, the chest and the pelvic bones. In the spine there are many vertebrae. They are cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral vertebrae and the соссух. The trunk is divided into two large cavities by diaphragm. The upper cavity of the trunk is called thorax and the lower one is called the belly. In the middle of the thorax (the chest) there is a long bone the breastbone by name. The ribs are connected with the breastbone by cartilages, the lungs and the heart are located above the diaphragm in the upper cavity. In the lower cavity (abdominal cavity) we find interior organs such as stomach, liver, urinary bladder, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen and intestines (bowels). There are two nipples on the chest, and, in women, the breasts with the teats. There is the navel in the middle of the abdomen. At the lowest part of the abdomen there are genitals (the external reproductive organs).

The upper limb (extremity) is divided into the shoulder, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand. The joint between upper arm and forearm we call the elbow. The wrist is the joint between forearm and hand. Each hand has five fingers: index (fore-finger), middle finger, ring finger, little finger and a thumb.

The lower limb consists of the thigh-bone (the femur), the shin-bone (the tibia) and the fibula. We call the calf the back of the lower leg. The joint between the femur and the lower leg is called the knee-joint. This joint is protected by the knee-cap (the patella). The joints between lower legs and feet are the ankles. The foot consists of heel, sole and toes.

The muscles form about 40 per cent of the body weight. They are subdivided into three groups. These groups are the muscles of the trunk, head and extremities. There are about 600 skeletal muscles. As far as their form is concerned they can be long, wide and short. The long muscles compose the free extremities, the wide ones lay, on the trunk and form the walls of the body cavities. The short muscles are not numerous. Some of them form facial muscles. Muscles are attached to bones, internal organs and blood vessels. They allow us to make an internal or external movement due to their contraction and relaxation.

As for the structure of the muscles there are also three types of them: striated (skeletal) muscles, smooth (visceral) muscles and a cardiac muscle. The first ones move all the bones, face and eyes. The second ones move our internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels and secretory ducts. We have no conscious control over visceral muscles and a cardiac muscle. The muscles contain many muscle fibers (cells) which are connected together by connective tissue. It goes, without saying that there are many nerves and blood vessels in the muscles.

limb кінцівка

cartilage хрящ

joint суглоб

ligament зв'язка

cranial черепний

facial лицьовий

jaw щелепа

to chew жувати

to breathe дихати

vertebra хребець

vertebrae хребці

cervical шийний

thoracic грудний

coccyx куприк

diaphragm діафрагма

stomach шлунок

urinary сечовий

wrist зап'ясток

thumb великий палець кисті руки

thigh-bone стегнова кістка

tibia великогомілкова кістка

tibiae великогомілкові кістки

fibula малогомілкова кістка

knee-joint колінний суглоб

ankle щиколотка

extremity кінцівка

muscle м'яз

cavity порожнина

the trunk тулуб

the head голова

upper limb верхня кінцівка

lower limb нижня кінцівка

form форма

structure структура

Людське тіло

Людське тіло складається з трьох частин. Це є голова тулуб і кінцівки. Багато кісток різної величини формуються у скелет. Кістки з’єднуються разом з хрящами, зв’язками і суглобами. Суглоби дозволяють кісткам рухатися.

Головною частиною голови є череп. Кістки черепа складають черепну і лицеву частини. Череп оточує мозок. Лоб, виски, щоки, вилиці, дві щелепи і рот складають обличчя. Зуби і язик є розміщені в роті. Зуби пережовують їжу, а язик відчуває смак. Губи є двома краями рота. Ми бачимо очима, дихаємо і відчуваємо запах носом і чуємо вухами.

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Реферат на тему: The human body

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