а. Дошкольное и начальное образование…………………………..6
Pro-primary and Primary Education.
In some areas of England there are nursery schools for children under 5 years of age. Some children between two and five receive education in nursery classes or in infant’s classes in primary schools. Many children attend informal pre-school playgroups organised by parents in private homes. Nursery schools are staffed with teachers and students in training. There are all kinds of toys to keep the children busy from 9 o'clock in the morning till 4 o'clock in the afternoon while their parents are at work. Here the babies play, lunch and sleep. They can run about and play in safety with someone keeping an eye on them.
For day nurseries, which remain open, all the year round the parents pay according to their income. The local education authority's nurseries are free. But only about three children in 100 can go to them: there aren't enough places, and the waiting lists are rather long.
Most children start school at 5 in a primary school. A primary school may be divided into two parts—infants and juniors. At infants school reading, writing and arithmetic are taught for about 20 minutes a day during the first year, gradually increasing to about 2 hours in their last year. There is usually no written timetable. Much time is spent in modelling from clay or drawing, reading or singing.
By the time children are ready for the junior school they will be able to read and write, do simple addition and subtraction of numbers.
At 7 children go on from the infants school to the junior school. This marks the transition from play to "real work". The children have set periods of arithmetic, reading and composition, which are all Eleven Plus subjects. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art and Music, Physical Education, Swimming is also on the timetable.
Pupils were streamed according to their abilities to learn into A, B, С and D streams. The least gifted are in the D stream. Formally towards the end of their fourth year the pupils wrote their Eleven Plus Examination. The hated 11 + examination was a selective procedure on which not only the pupils' future schooling but their future careers depended. The abolition of selection at Eleven Plus Examination brought to life comprehensive schools where pupils can get secondary education.
Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote an elitarian education. Both universities are independent. Only very rich and aristocratic families can afford to send their sons and daughters to these universities. Mostly they are former public schools leavers.
The tutorial is the basic mode of instruction at Oxford and Cambridge, with lectures as optional extras.
The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B. A.). Some courses, such as languages or medicine, may be one or two years longer. The students may work for other degrees as well. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Oxford and Cambridge cling to their traditions, such as the use of Latin at degree ceremonies. Full academic dress is worn at examinations.
Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name, its coat of arms. A Master governs each college, the larger ones have more than 400 members, and the smallest colleges have less than 30. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. Within the college one will normally find a chapel, a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates, fellows and the Master, and also rooms for teaching purposes.
Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It is the second largest in Britain, after London. The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 911
A. D. and it was popular with the early English kings (Richard Coeur de Lion was probably here). The university's earliest charter is dated back to 1213.
There are now twenty-four colleges for men, five for women and another five which have both men and women members, many from overseas studying for higher degrees. Among the oldest colleges are University College, All Souls and Christ Church.
The local car industry in East Oxford gives an important addition to the city's outlook. There is a great deal of bicycle traffic both in Oxford and Cambridge.
The Cambridge University started during the 13th century and grew until today. Now there are more than thirty colleges.