It is impossible to imagine our television, newspapers, radio, Internet and even streets without advertisements. Nowadays advertising plays an important role in modern life and in the life of every person. We can’t imagine our life without advertising because every day we hear or see advertising, we try to find information we need in hundreds of advertisements. Even when we go for a walk or just shopping we see a lot of different advertisements in the streets. I think that “Advertising” is a very interesting topic, because in the XXI century every minute of our life is connected with advertising. It is hard to believe but the origins of advertising antedate the Christian era by many centuries. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor display, usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. From this unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times advertising has turned into a worldwide industry.
The word “advertising” comes from the French word "reclame". Advertising if to speak a simple language, serves to notify in various ways (sometimes all available) the new goods or services and their consumer properties, and is directed to the potential consumer, paid by the sponsor and serves for promotion of its production and ideas. Advertising is a part of communication activity of a firm, alongside with publicity and stimulation of selling. Advertising unessentially imposes the goods on the buyer. Sometimes it simply forces to recollect the last concrete mark or the name of the goods or service when the customer makes the choice. At the beginning the consumer decides to choose from what, and already then what mark to prefer, on the basis of the representation about it, a stereotype or a developed image of concrete mark of the goods or service. There are a lot of definitions of the word “advertising”. For example, advertising is collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. It is to be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public, such as propaganda, publicity, and public relations. Advertising techniques range in complexity from the publishing of simple, straightforward notices in the classified – advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio, internet and other communication media in the course of a single advertising campaign. In the US alone in the late 1980s approximately $120 billion was spent in a single year on advertising to influence the purchase of commodities and services.
Advertising has achieved the greatest blossoming in the United States of America. American advertising leads the world not only in volume of business but in the complexity of its organization and of its procedures. Modern advertising is an integral segment of urban industrial civilization, reflecting contemporary life in its best and worst aspects. Having proved its force in the movement of economic goods and services, advertising since the early 1960s has been directed in increasing quantity toward matters of social concern. The continuing cancer and antidrug abuse campaigns are only two examples of the use of the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare.
The basic underlying advertising idea is the idea of human needs. Need is the feeling of shortage of something experienced by the person. If the need is not satisfied, the person feels like destitute and unfortunate. Unsatisfied person will do one of the following things: either will be engaged in search of the object, capable to satisfy his or her need, or will try to muffle it.
The second initial idea of advertising is the idea of human requirements. Requirement is the need which has accepted the specific form according to a cultural level and the personal features of the individual. Requirements of people are practically boundless,but resources for their satisfaction are limited. So the person will choose those goods which will give him or her the greatest satisfaction within the framework of his or her financial opportunities.
The inquiry is the requirement supported by purchasing capacity. So, for example, in Europe automobile " Volkswagen " personifies an elementary automobile, a low purchase price, and "Cadillac" - high comfort, luxury and prestige. Russian people choose "Zhiguli" as they have no opportunity to buy such expensive cars and "Zhiguli" gives them the greatest satisfaction for money available for them.