Pulizer Prize / сторінка 5
20 articles, cartoons, or pictures, and in the remaining categories, to 10 articles or editorials - except for feature writing, which has a maximum of five articles. In photography, a single jury judges both the Breaking News category and the Feature category. Since the inception of the prizes the journalism categories have been expanded and repeatedly redefined by the board to keep abreast of the evolution of American journalism. The cartoons prize was created in 1922. The prize for photography was established in
1942, and in 1968 the category was divided into spot or breaking news and feature. With the development of computer-altered photos, the board stipulated in 1995 that "no entry whose content is manipulated or altered, apart from standard newspaper cropping and editing, will be deemed acceptable."
These are the Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2001 competition:
1. For a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use of its journalistic resources which may include editorials, cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting.
2. For a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
3. For a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single article or series.
4. For a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation.
5. For a distinguished example of beat reporting characterized by sustained and knowledgeable coverage of a particular subject or activity.
6. For a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs.
7. For a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
8. For a distinguished example of feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
9. For distinguished commentary.
10. For distinguished criticism.
11. For distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction.
12. For a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
13. For a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
14. For a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence or an album.
While the journalism process goes forward, shipments of books totaling some
800 titles are being sent to five letters juries for their judging in these categories:
1. For distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
2. For a distinguished book upon the history of the United States.
3. For a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
4. For a distinguished volume of original verse by an American author.
5. For a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
The award in poetry was established in 1922 and that for non-fiction in
1962. Unlike the other awards which are made for works in the calendar year, eligibility in drama and music extends from March 2 to March 1. The drama jury of four critics and one academic attend plays both in New York and the regional theaters. The award in drama goes to a playwright but production of the play as well as script are taken into account.
The music jury, usually made up of four composers and one newspaper critic, meet in New York to listen to recordings and study the scores of pieces, which in 2000 numbered 100. The category definition states:
For distinguished musical composition of significant dimension by an
American that has had its first performance in the United States during the year.
The final act of the annual competition is enacted in early April when the board assembles in the Pulitzer World Room of the Columbia School of
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