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Higher education in Great Britain
When higher education of Great Britain is being spoken about the University education is generally meant. But in fact there is a considerable amount of past-school education, including part-time as well as full-time studies carried on in technical colleges teacher training colleges, art colleges, institutes of adult education and so on.
Higher education, consisting of degree and equivalent courses, has experienced a dramatic expansion. The number of higher education students in Britain almost doubled between 1979 and 1993 to 1.5 million, so that today around 30 percent of young people enter full-time higher education.
There are some 90 universities, which enjoy academic freedom. Every University is autonomous and responsible to its governing body. The regulations differ from University to University. While there are similarities between them, they all differ from Oxford and Cambridge, where are a number of separate colleges, each with their own regulations and courses of studies. The new, so-called ”red-brick” Universities are divided into various faculties: Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Social and Economic Studies, etc.
University degree courses are generally being taken for three, four or even five years. University teaching combines lectures practical classes and small group teaching in either seminars or tutorials. The last is a traditional feature of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
First degree courses are mainly full time and usually last three years, with longer courses in subjects such as medicine. Universities offer courses in a broad range of academic and vocational subjects, including traditional arts subjects, the humanities, and science and technology. The government encourages young people to choose degree courses in subjects, or combinations of subjects, that provide the knowledge and skills required by a technologically advanced economy .
Over 95 percent of students on first degree and comparable higher education courses receive government grants covering tuition and accommodation and other maintenance expenses. Parents also contribute, the amount depending on their income. In addition, students can take out loans to help pay their maintenance costs.
1. post-school education – освіта, одержана після закінчення школи
2. in fact – фактично, насправді
3. part-time studies – навчання без відриву від виробництва
4. full-time studies – навчання з відривом від виробництва
5. as well as – також, як і
6. to enjoy academic freedom – мати (користуватись) навчальну свободу
7. to responsible to – бути відповідальним перед
8. to take a course – вивчати курс
9. a broad range of academic and vocational subjects – широкий вибір навчальних та професійних предметів
10. humanities – гуманітарні предмети
11. teacher training college – педагогічні інститути
12. to carry on – продовжується, здійснюється
13. to provide knowledge – забезпечувати знання
14. to receive government grants – одержувати пільги від уряду
15. maintenance expenses – витрати на утримання