Реферат на тему:
President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
, – ,
Vice | (1869-1873),
Born | , (1822-04-27)
Died | , (aged )
Nationality | American
Occupation | ()
Religion | Methodist
Ulysses S. Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (, – , ), was an general and the eighteenth (1869–1877). He achieved international fame as the leading general in the , capturing in 1863 and in 1865. He accepted the surrender of his opponent at .
After service in the , an undistinguished peacetime military career, and a series of unsuccessful civilian jobs, Grant returned to service in 1861 at the outset of the Civil War and proved highly successful in training new recruits. His capture of and in February 1862 marked the first major Union victories of the Civil War and opened up prime avenues of invasion to the South. Surprised and nearly defeated at (April 1862), he fought back and took control of most of western and . His great achievement in 1862-63 was to seize control of the by defeating a series of armies and by capturing in July 1863. After a victory at in late 1863, made him general-in-chief of all .
Grant was the first Union general in the war to initiate coordinated offensives across multiple theaters. While his subordinates and marched through and the respectively, Grant personally supervised the 1864 against General 's Army in Virginia. He employed against his opponent, conducting a series of large-scale battles with very high casualties that alarmed public opinion, while maneuvering ever closer to the Confederate capital, . Grant announced he would "fight it out on this line if it takes all summer." Lincoln supported his general and replaced his losses, and Lee's dwindling army was forced into defending trenches around Richmond and . In April 1865 Grant's vastly larger army broke through, captured Richmond, and forced Lee to surrender at . He has been described by as "the greatest general of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age." His in particular has been scrutinized by military specialists around the world.
Grant announced generous terms for his defeated foes, and pursued a policy of peace. He broke with President in 1867, and was elected president as a in 1868. He was the first president to serve for two full terms since forty years before. He led and built a powerful patronage-based Republican party in the South, with the adroit use of the army. He took a hard line that reduced violence by groups like the . Although Grant was personally honest, he not only tolerated financial and political corruption among top aides but also protected them once exposed. He blocked reforms and defeated the in 1872, driving out many of its founders. The pushed the nation into a that Grant was helpless to reverse. typically rank Grant in the lowest quartile of U.S. presidents, primarily for his tolerance of corruption. In recent years, however, his reputation as president has improved somewhat among scholars impressed by his support for for . Unsuccessful in winning a third term in 1880, bankrupted by bad investments, and terminally ill with throat cancer, Grant wrote his , which was enormously successful among veterans, the public, and the critics.
Birth and early years
Ulysses Grant Birthplace,
Grant was born in a small two-room cabin in , , , 25 miles (40 km) east of on the . He was the eldest of the six children of Jesse Root Grant (1794–1873) and Hannah Simpson Grant (1798–1883). His father, a tanner, and his mother were born in Pennsylvania. In the fall of 1823, they moved to the village of in . The smell of his father's tannery was one of his earliest memories.
On , , Grant married (1826–1902), the daughter of a slave owner. They had four children: , , , and .
Ulysses S. Grant
Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, portrait by
Yearsservice 1839-1854, 1861-1868
Rank General of the Army (four star)
At the age of 17, Grant entered the at , after securing a nomination through his , .