Головна Головна -> Реферати українською -> Іноземні мови -> Architecture


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Architecture (from , architectura and ultimately from , бсчйфекфщн, "a master builder", from бсчй- "chief, leader" and фекфщн, "builder, carpenter") is the and of and .
A wider definition would include within its scope the design of the total built environment, from the macrolevel of , , and to the microlevel of creating . Architectural design usually must address both feasibility and for the , and function and for the .
In modern usage, architecture is the and of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any complex object or . The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of abstract things such as or , the apparent architecture of natural things, such as formations or the , or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things such as , , , and , in addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a subjective from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the or of some kind of or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components.
Planned architecture often , , , , , or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing . This distinguishes it from or , which usually concentrate more on the functional and feasibility aspects of the design of constructions or structures.
In the field of building architecture, the skills demanded of an architect range from the more complex, such as for a or a , to the apparently simpler, such as planning houses. Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and political , and/or works of art. The role of the architect, though changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes less than successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments in which people live.
Table of architecture, , 1728
According to the very earliest surviving work on the subject, ' , good buildings satisfy three core principles: Firmness, Commodity, and Delight; architecture can be said to be a balance and coordination among these three elements, with none overpowering the others. A modern day definition sees architecture as addressing aesthetic, structural and functional considerations. However, looked at another way, function itself is seen as encompassing all criteria, including aesthetic and psychological ones.
Architecture is an , drawing upon , , , , , , , and . Vitruvius states: "Architecture is a science, arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the result of other arts." He adds that an architect should be well versed in fields such as and . is a particular favourite; in fact the approach of an to their subject is often called their philosophy. , , , , and are some topics from philosophy that have influenced architecture.
Architecture and buildings
The difference between architecture and building is a subject matter that has engaged the attention of many. According to , historian of the early twentieth century, "A bicycle shed is a building, is a piece of architecture." This distinction, however, is not a clear one, and contemporary scholarship is showing that all buildings, cathedrals and bicycle sheds alike, are part of a single continuum that characterizes the built world.
Architecture is also the art of designing the built environment. Buildings, landscaping, and street designs may be used to impart both functional as well as aesthetic character to a project. Siding and roofing materials and colors may be used to enhance or blend buildings with the environment. Building features such as cornices, gables, entrances, window treatments and borders may be used to soften or enhance portions of a building. Landscaping may be used to create privacy and block direct views from or to a site and enhance buildings with colorful plants and trees. Street side features such as decorative lighting, benches, meandering walkways, and may enhance a site for passersby, pedestrians, and cyclists.

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