Реферат на тему:
US Style and design (20th century) –
Pop Art, Commercial Photography
The twentieth century is the first century of self-conscious, total design at every level of our living and environment. Care and vision in application of design have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern life – from our kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops, from our clothes and domestic objects, to the packaging of pocket calculators or the structuring of plastic dining chairs.
Although the word has been used since at least the fifteenth century, when Italian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of line possessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is an industrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction of mass-production, the people who invented ideas for objects became separated from the people who made them who, again, were separated from the people who sold them. The industrial revolution also created the concept of the market. Personal need, or the whims of a patron, were replaced by a more abstract demand: the tastes of a large, amorphous body of consumers.
The modern designer came into being as an intermediary between industry and the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry to the mass market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, but to make them more appeal-ing and commercially successful, certainly. Comsuccess is the touchstone of achievement in design, although designers in different cultures have often taken different views as to how the achievement is measured or the success validated.
So, design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style in the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by various new forces, including social and economic factors and certain aspects of technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer design, web design, advertisement design ( for example consumer-product branding design) and the whole fashion of different types of ad, colors and so on.
The late fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, a high-powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing techniques; it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional jargon of product packaging, market research, corporate images and house style.
The POP Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In Britain, in addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake, Allen Jones. In USA Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and other formalized the language of product packaging, from beer cans to Campbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons, fast food, advertising hoardings and pin-ups.
Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injected a new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which were its natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction and the Hyper- or Photo-realist school of around 1970, suggested a new palette o colours and gave a fresh, ironical edge to the imagery of popular culture. The Pop ethic posi lively encouraged designers to exploit vulgarity brashness and bright colour, and to use synthetic or disposable materials in contexts in which they would formerly have been unacceptable. Pop has had a lasting effect on design in a wide variety of media, including interiors, graphics and fashion.
Pop has spawned furniture in bright, primary-coloured plastics and in boldly printed fold-away cardboard; it has inspired, notably in Britain and Italy, witty sculptural furniture in brash, synthetic materials reminiscent of the sculptures of Claes Oldenburg. The fashion and furniture shop Mr Freedom, opened in London in 1969 by Tommy Roberts, was a veritable shrine to the Pop cult, with lively furniture designs by Jon Weallans. Italian Pop furniture was one aspect of the Italian design community's wide-ranging intellectual ap-proach which, since the sixties, has made Italy the most progressive country in many areas of the applied arts.