4.3 UN humanitarian assistance to developing countries
5.1 UN activity in the sphere of disarmament
5.2 The problem of Iraqi military arsenal
5.2.1 Iraq/Kuwait conflict
5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment
Most people are familiar with the work of the United Nations in peacekeeping or in delivering humanitarian assistance to a far-off country. But the many ways in which the UN has a direct impact on all our lives, everywhere in the world, is not always so well-known.
Now that world mass media reflect the news about the UNO in detail, it is very challenging to know different points of view, and I took an interest in this problem. I heard about UN activity but didn’t reach the main point, like the majority of my coevals, who are familiar with the events that concern the UNO but don’t fully understand the essence of them. UN activity in preserving peace has attracted me most of all. The arms race, disputes between nations, wars, military conflicts have turned into the real danger to the mankind. I think that people must stop killing each other and end this violence. I’ve chosen the UN peacekeeping missions and especially in Iraq as a specific example of UN’s work. It is very urgent nowadays.
II. ORIGIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Day in, day out, the UN and its family of organizations work together and individually to protect human rights; promote the protection of the environment; help the advancement of women and the rights of children; fight epidemics, famine, poverty. Throughout the world, the UN and its agencies assist refugees and help improve telecommunication; deliver food aid and protect consumers; combat disease and help expand food production; make loans to developing countries and help stabilize financial markets. UN agencies define the standards for safe and efficient transport by air and sea, work to ensure respect for intellectual property rights and coordinate allocation of radio frequencies. The UN's work has a long-term impact on the quality of our lives.
The name "United Nations" was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of January 1, 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, which met at San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24 each year.
III. THE WAY UN WORKS
The United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations. It provides the machinery to help find solutions to international problems or disputes, and to deal with pressing concerns that face people everywhere.
It does not legislate like a national parliament. But in the meeting rooms and corridors of the UN, representatives of almost all countries of the world -large and small, rich and poor, with varying political views and social systems -have a voice and vote in shaping the policies of the international community.
The UN has six main bodies listed below. All are based at UN Headquarters in New York, except the International Court of Justice, which is located at the Hague, Netherlands.
In addition, 14 specialized agencies, working in areas as diverse as health, finance, agriculture, civil aviation and telecommunications, are linked together through the Economic and Social Council. The UN and its specialized agencies constitute the UN system. Main bodies of the UN are: the General Assembly, Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat.