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The state economic programming has appeared rather effective at the decision of a number of economic and social tasks, however this efficiency has objective borders. In conditions of market economy the programming can be only indicative, that is to carry target-stimulating character. Nevertheless, it has appeared a rather effective means of the decision of tasks of a different level; if the state programs frequently also were not realised completely, all of them - provided social economic development in a desirable direction. That circumstance is not less important also, that the programming allows systematically using all means of state regulation of economy, to avoid discrepancy and inconsistency of regulating measures of separate official bodies.
State financial stimulation, orders and the purchases within the framework of the economic programs render appreciable and non-uniform influence on competitiveness of the separate companies, situation of branches, regions, of social groups and cause resistance what interests have appeared restrained. On state programming systems therefore constantly there is a versatile influence reflecting inconsistent interests of separate groups, public forces, political groups.
Let's consider the mechanism of state regulation on an example of politics of the prices.
Contrary to widespread at many to opinion, that in the countries of market economy money appearing occurs spontaneously, actually prices are object of constant attention and regulation on the part of the state. The prices are one of critical points economic and social - political life, where the group interests of the manufacturers and consumers, wholesale and retail dealers, trade unions and unions of the businessmen, exporters and importers collide. The prices mention interests everyone and, naturally, around of them there is a struggle in parties and parliaments, in government and on negotiation of the social partners, at the international meetings.
The influence on the prices serves to the global purposes of state regulation of economy, purposes of tactical and structural politics, struggle with inflation, amplification of national competitiveness in the world markets and mitigation of social intensity. The influence of state economic politics on other objects of regulation, in turn, is reflected in processes of formation of the prices.
The concrete actions in the field of the prices can have short-term or even the emergency purposes, which can in the given concrete moment not coincide with other purposes, but at the end they always serve of the general purpose of state regulation - optimisation of rates both proportions of economic development and stabilisation of social system
The classical political economy examined the prices, freely developing in the market, as the main element of the mechanism of maintenance of balance between a supply and demand. However actually there was never of ideal general and complete freedom money appearing. All question in a degree and forms of restriction of free game of the prices. Even if to abstract from opportunities of arrangement of the manufacturers and sellers, during all history of capitalism it is possible to look after influence of the state on the prices.
The tariffs for services of state iron roads, mail, telegraph, sale of the foodstuffs from state stocks per poor harvest years, customs politics and indirect taxation essential image influencing on the internal price, - here the not complete list of measures of state price control for last 100 - 150 years.
The first world war which has begun after it depression and crisis, have served as the moment of changes in a history of state price control. K. Muller wrote in this occasion, that the political and economic shocks in the state and society have caused comprehension that in interests of the best functioning of a economy, more uniform distribution and avoidance of danger of revolutionary revolution it would be expedient, that the state has undertaken care of regulation of economic process and maintenance of the fair prices.
Attempts to adjust the prices in conditions of inflation and crisis by the foreign trade politics have appeared insolvent. To the middle of the 30-th years in many advanced countries with market economy the laws giving to the state powers on influence on the prices, down to their freezing were accepted, and the state measures on influence on the prices become a component of state regulation of economy.
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