To outstrip inevitable, increase, expected by all, of the prices, the owners of “hot” money aspire as soon as possible gets rid of them. In result is developed great demand; those goods are bought up first of all which can serve a means of partial preservation of the savings (real estate, subjects of art, precious metals). The people work under pressure “inflationary crisis ”, and it grow a rise in prices, and the inflation begins to feed itself.
Classical example super-inflation - conditions which has been usual in Germany and a number of other countries after the First World War. In Germany in 1923 the level of a rise in prices was estimated 10 numbers and 12 numbers by numbers; the wages should be spent immediately, for within day of the price on products raised repeatedly.
The process of inflation is inconsistent. On the one hand, the money profits are increased, the capital investments extend, and with another - the rise in prices conducts to depreciation of the unused capital. Win not everything, and, first of all strong firms having the modern equipment, perfect organisation of manufacture. In the best rule(situation) there are social groups living on the not fixed incomes, if their nominal incomes will grow by rate overtaking a rise in prices.
From inflation the people who take money on credit can win, if not is stipulated, that percent for the credit should take into account an inflationary rise in prices.
But whichever there were positive functions of inflation, leaving from under the control and even remaining rather weak, adjusted, the inflation renders on a course of economic development the whole complex especially of negative phenomena.
To negative consequences of inflationary processes concern:
- Decrease of the real incomes of the population;
- Depreciation of the savings of the population (the increase of percents on the contributions, as a rule, does not compensate fall of the real sizes of the savings);
- The loss at the manufacturers of interest in creation of the qualitative goods (is increased release of the goods of poor quality, manufacture of the rather cheap goods) is reduced;
- Restriction of sale of agricultural products in city by the rural manufacturers by virtue of fall of interest, in expectation of increase of the prices on the foodstuffs;
- Deterioration of conditions of life mainly at the representatives of social groups with the firm incomes (pensioners serving, students, which incomes are formed for the account state budget);
- Easing positions of imperious structures (is reduced trust to the programs and measures planned and carried out government).
The management of inflation represents a major problem money-credit and in the whole economic politics. The ways of management are ambiguous, are inconsistent on the consequences. The range of parameters for realisation of such politics can be rather narrow: on the one hand, it is required to constrain growth of an inflationary spiral, and with another - to support stimulus of manufacture to create conditions for saturation of the market by the goods.
The management of inflation assumes use of the complex measures assisting in a certain measure to combine an insignificant rise in prices with stabilisation of the incomes. The tools of management of process differ depending on character and rate of inflation, features of economic conditions, specificity of an economic mechanism of the different countries.
For antiinflationary regulation two are used such as economic politics:
1) Politics directed on reduction of budget deficiency, restriction of credit expansion, restraint of money issue. In conformity with material the recipes apply targets - regulation of rate of a gain of money weight in the certain limits - according to rate of growth of a total national product
2) Politics of price control and incomes having by the purpose to co-ordinate growth of earnings with a rise in prices. One of means serves index of the incomes determined by a level of a minimum conditions of life or a standard consumer basket and connected with dynamics of an index of the prices. For restraint of the undesirable phenomena the limits of increase or freezing of wages can be established, to be limited distribution of the credits etc.
The influence on inflationary process in conditions of a sharp rise in prices requires special measures. So, for elimination of consequences “ of a petroleum shock ”, struck on economy of USA in second half of 70-th years, the registration rates were increased, the requirements to the sizes of reserve funds are amplified, the system of the taxation is stipulated. To lower rates of an inflationary rise in prices it was possible not at once: from 13-14 of % in 1979 they have decreased to 4 % after about three years - in 1982.