In the process of development of a market economy the economic and social problems became aggravated, they could not be solved automatically on the basis of a private property. The necessity of the significant investments, has appeared necessary for continuation of reproduction in national scales; branch and social crises, mass unemployment, the infringements in the money manipulation become aggravated competition in the global markets required state economic politics.
Theoretically concept state economic wider than concept of state regulation of economy, as first can be based on a principle of non-interference of the state in economic life (known principle of economic liberalism laisser faire - laisser passer). In modern conditions the non-interference of the state in socially - economic processes is impossible. Disputes about necessity of state regulation of economy, and about its scales, forms and intensity are conducted for a long time. Therefore terms “ state regulation of economy ” and “ state economic politics ” are presently identical.
The objective opportunity of state regulation occurs with the achievement of the certain level of economic development, concentration of manufacture and capital. The necessity of transforming this opportunity into the validity consists in increase of problems, difficulties.
In modern conditions the state regulation of economy is a component of reproduction. It solves various tasks: for example, stimulation of economic growth, regulation of employment, encouragement of progressive shifts in branch and regional structure, support of export. The concrete directions, forms, scales of state regulation of economy are defined by character and acuteness of economic and social problems in this or that country in the concrete period.
For understanding of the mechanism of state regulation of economy it is expedient to characterise its subjects, objects, purposes, means, and also stages of its development.
The subjects of economic politics are the carriers and executors of economic interests.
The carriers of economic interests are social groups distinguished from each other on a number of attributes: property, the incomes, on kinds of activity at the similar incomes, on trades, branch and regional interests. They are hired workers and owners of the enterprises, farmers and land proprietors, businessmen managers and the shareholders, civil servants etc. Each of these groups has interests caused by their social economic rule, and also accessory to that or other region, kind of activity.
The representatives of these groups individually express the interests in mass media, on meetings and addressing with the requests, protests, wishes to official bodies responsible for economic and social politics.
It is the first communication line of economic interests with the state device regulating an economy.
The carriers of economic interests are incorporated in the advanced countries of a market economy in numerous unions, association: it is trade unions, unions of the businessmen, farmers, various dealers, students, brokers and т. Item. Some of these unions total millions members (trade unions, for example), others play a huge role in a national economy because of the capitals, represented by them, (unions of the businessmen, bank establishments, trade chambers). There are also absolutely insignificant associations, for example, association of the physical and legal persons interested in a privatisation of the concrete ground area, belonging to municipality. Such associations are expressers of economic interests.
Most powerful expressers of economic interests are unions of the businessmen and trade unions. They carry out the own concepts of social economic politics, aspiring to render the maximal influence on state economic politics. At expressers of economic interests there are printed editions, significant financial resources, centres of training of personnel and public relations. The unions of the businessmen and trade unions are constructed to a branch and territorial attribute, all local and branch unions hierarchically are subordinated to the national centres, which, in turn, enter into the international, regional and global associations.
The recommendations, advises, memorandums, various channels of influence these expressers of economic interests on bodies of state economic regulation is the second communication line of economic interests with state economic politics.
Expressers of social economic, political, religious, cultural, ecological, specific regional interests are the political parties, which frequently work under a banner of national interests.
To carry out in life the program of state economic politics there will be a subject of state economic regulation - executors of economic interests. It is the main, third line of transformation of private-individual economic interests in state economic politics.