The contents / сторінка 6
The regulation of employment is maintenance normal from the point of view of market economy of parity between a supply and demand of a labour. Parity should satisfy requirement of economy for the qualified and disciplined workers, which wages serve for them a sufficient motivation to work. However parity between a supply and demand should not conduct to excessive growth of wages, which can be reflected negative in national competitiveness. The sharp decrease of employment is undesirable also, it conducts to increase the army of the unemployed, decrease of consumer demanded, tax receipts, growth of the charges on the grants and, most important, it is dangerous by social consequences.
Constant object of attention of state regulating bodies is money manipulation. The basic orientation of regulation of money manipulation - struggle with inflation representing serious danger to economy. The regulation of money manipulation influences and other objects - condition of accumulation, price, social relations.
The condition of payment balance is an objective parameter of economic health of the country. In all countries with a market economy the state constantly carries out operative and strategic regulation of payment balance by influence on export and import, movement of the capital, increase and downturn of rates of national currencies, marketcontractual politics and participation in the international economic integration.
One more of the main objects of regulation - price. Changes and structure of the prices reflect a condition of economy. At the same time prices strongly influence structure of economy, condition of capital investments, stability of national currency, social atmosphere.
The state regulating instances aspire to influence and other objects of state regulation of economy, for example, to interest private concerns in development of scientific researches and introduction of their results, in export of goods, capitals, both saved knowledge and experience are studied and the laws on observance of rules of a competition, social protection, protection of an environment are improved.
The objects of state economy regulation of differ depending on a level of tasks, solved by them. It is the following hierarchical levels: a level of firm; region; branches; sectors of economy (industry, agriculture, service); economy as a whole (economic cycle; the money manipulation; the prices); global (social relations, ecology); economic-political relations with foreign countries, integration processes).
The general purpose of state regulation of economy is the economic and social stability and strengthening existing building inside the country and abroad, adaptation to its varied conditions.
From this general purpose the tree so-called of the concrete purposes is distributed, without which realisation the general purpose can not be achieved. These concrete purposes indissoluble are connected with objects of state regulation of economy. The purpose - alignment of a business cycle - is directed on the object, that is on a business cycle; improvement of an environment - on an environment etc.
It is obvious, that the purposes, first, uncommon on importance and scales and, secondly are in close interrelation. More often one purpose can not be put and is achieved without dependence from others. For example, it is impossible to present stimulation НИОКР without creation of favourable conditions of accumulation of the capital, without alignment of a conjuncture, perfection of branch structure of economy, stable money manipulation.
The listed purposes partially block each other, one can appear temporarily more important and to subordinate to herself others depending on a real economic and social situation, level of comprehension of this situation by the subjects of state regulation of economy and from established by governmental bodies on the given interval of time of system of priorities of the purposes. Any of the above named purposes can serve, to promote or to interfere with achievement of other purpose. The concrete purposes inside a tree of the purposes can be primary, secondary, tertiary etc. For example, in conditions of crisis the primary purpose becomes an exit from crisis in narrow concrete sense - revival of a conjuncture. All other purposes submit to it.
The means of state regulation are subdivided on administrative and economic.
The administrative means are not connected with creation of additional material stimulus or danger of financial damage. They are based on force of state authority and include measures of an interdiction, sanction and compulsion.
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